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Grade Seven English-language Arts Content Standards. Reading 1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1.1 Identify idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry. 1.2 Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand content-area vocabulary. 1.3 Clarify word meanings through the use of definition, example, restatement, or contrast. 2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials) Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade seven, students make substantial progress toward this goal. Structural Features of Informational Materials 2.1 Understand and analyze the differences in structure and purpose between various categories of informational materials (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, instructional manuals, signs). 2.2 Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents. 2.3 Analyze text that uses the cause-and-effect organizational pattern. Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 2.4 Identify and trace the development of an author's argument, point of view, or perspective in text. 2.5 Understand and explain the use of a simple mechanical device by following technical directions. Expository Critique 2.6 Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness of the author's evidence to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping. 3.0 Literary Response and Analysis Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. Structural Features of Literature 3.1 Articulate the expressed purposes and characteristics of different forms of prose (e.g., short story, novel, novella, essay). Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 3.2 Identify events that advance the plot and determine how each event explains past or present action(s) or foreshadows future action(s). 3.3 Analyze characterization as delineated through a character's thoughts, words, speech patterns, and actions; the narrator's description; and the thoughts, words, and actions of other characters. 3.4 Identify and analyze recurring themes across works (e.g., the value of bravery, loyalty, and friendship; the effects of loneliness). 3.5 Contrast points of view (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective and objective) in narrative text and explain how they affect the overall theme of the work. Literary Criticism 3.6 Analyze a range of responses to a literary work and determine the extent to which the literary elements in the work shaped those responses. Writing 1.0 Writing Strategies Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed. Organization and Focus 1.1 Create an organizational structure that balances all aspects of the composition and uses effective transitions between sentences to unify important ideas. 1.2 Support all statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and specific examples. 1.3 Use strategies of note taking, outlining, and summarizing to impose structure on composition drafts. Research and Technology 1.4 Identify topics; ask and evaluate questions; and develop ideas leading to inquiry, investigation, and research. 1.5 Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by using a consistent and sanctioned format and methodology for citations. 1.6 Create documents by using word-processing skills and publishing programs; develop simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare reports. Evaluation and Revision 1.7 Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic of the ideas and the precision of the vocabulary. 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. The writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0. Using the writing strategies of grade seven outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students: 2.1 Write fictional or autobiographical narratives: 0. Develop a standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement) and point of view. 0. Develop complex major and minor characters and a definite setting. 0. Use a range of appropriate strategies (e.g., dialogue; suspense; naming of specific narrative action, including movement, gestures, and expressions). 2.2 Write responses to literature:_ a. Develop interpretations exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight. b. Organize interpretations around several clear ideas, premises, or images from the literary work. c. Justify interpretations through sustained use of examples and textual evidence. 2.3 Write research reports: a. Pose relevant and tightly drawn questions about the topic. b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject._ c. Include evidence compiled through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, a computer catalog, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries). d. Document reference sources by means of footnotes and a bibliography. 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: a. State a clear position or perspective in support of a proposition or proposal. b. Describe the points in support of the proposition, employing well-articulated evidence. c. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments. 2.5 Write summaries of reading materials: a. Include the main ideas and most significant details. b. Use the student's own words, except for quotations. c. Reflect underlying meaning, not just the superficial details. Written and Oral English Language Conventions The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills. 1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to the grade level. Sentence Structure 1.1 Place modifiers properly and use the active voice. Grammar 1.2 Identify and use infinitives and participles and make clear references between pronouns and antecedents. 1.3 Identify all parts of speech and types and structure of sentences. 1.4 Demonstrate the mechanics of writing (e.g., quotation marks, commas at end of dependent clauses) and appropriate English usage (e.g., pronoun reference). Punctuation_1.5 Identify hyphens, dashes, brackets, and semicolons and use them correctly. Capitalization_1.6 Use correct capitalization. Spelling_1.7 Spell derivatives correctly by applying the spellings of bases and affixes. Listening and Speaking 1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies Deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. Students evaluate the content of oral communication. Comprehension_1.1 Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker's claims and conclusions. 1.2 Determine the speaker's attitude toward the subject. 1.3 Respond to persuasive messages with questions, challenges, or affirmations. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication 1.4 Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to the background and interests of the audience. 1.5 Arrange supporting details, reasons, descriptions, and examples effectively and persuasively in relation to the audience. 1.6 Use speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation, and eye contact, for effective presentations. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications 1.7 Provide constructive feedback to speakers concerning the coherence and logic of a speech's content and delivery and its overall impact upon the listener._ 1.8 Analyze the effect on the viewer of images, text, and sound in electronic journalism; identify the techniques used to achieve the effects in each instance studied. 2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0. Using the speaking strategies of grade seven outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students: 2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:_ a. Establish a context, standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement), and point of view. b. Describe complex major and minor characters and a definite setting. c. Use a range of appropriate strategies, including dialogue, suspense, and naming of specific narrative action (e.g., movement, gestures, expressions). 2.2 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books:_ a. Include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details. b. Use the student's own words, except for material quoted from sources._c. Convey a comprehensive understanding of sources, not just superficial details. 2.3 Deliver research presentations: a. Pose relevant and concise questions about the topic. b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject. c. Include evidence generated through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, computer databases, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries). d. Cite reference sources appropriately. 2.4 Deliver persuasive presentations: a. State a clear position or perspective in support of an argument or proposal. b. Describe the points in support of the argument and employ well-articulated evidence.
Grade Seven History-Social Science Content Standards. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times Students in grade seven study the social, cultural, and technological changes that occurred in Europe, Africa, and Asia in the years A. D. 500_ 1789. After reviewing the ancient world and the ways in which archaeologists and historians uncover the past, students study the history and geography of great civilizations that were developing concurrently throughout the world during medieval and early modern times. They examine the growing economic interaction among civilizations as well as the exchange of ideas, beliefs, technologies, and commodities. They learn about the resulting growth of Enlightenment philosophy and the new examination of the concepts of reason and authority, the natural rights of human beings and the divine right of kings, experimentalism in science, and the dogma of belief. Finally, students assess the political forces let loose by the Enlightenment, particularly the rise of democratic ideas, and they learn about the continuing influence of these ideas in the world today. 7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire. 1. Study the early strengths and lasting contributions of Rome (e.g., significance of Roman citizenship; rights under Roman law; Roman art, architecture, engineering, and philosophy; preservation and transmission of Christianity) and its ultimate internal weaknesses (e.g., rise of autonomous military powers within the empire, undermining of citizenship by the growth of corruption and slavery, lack of education, and distribution of news). 2. Discuss the geographic borders of the empire at its height and the factors that threatened its territorial cohesion. 3. Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on church-state relations. 7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 1. Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life. 2. Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity. 3. Explain the significance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims' daily life. 4. Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties, emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language. 5. Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes among Asia, Africa, and Europe, the products and inventions that traveled along these routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, steel, new crops), and the role of merchants in Arab society. 6. Understand the intellectual exchanges among Muslim scholars of Eurasia and Africa and the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature. 7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 1. Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan. 2. Describe agricultural, technological, and commercial developments during the Tang and Sung periods. 3. Analyze the influences of Confucianism and changes in Confucian thought during the Sung and Mongol periods. 4. Understand the importance of both overland trade and maritime expeditions between China and other civilizations in the Mongol Ascendancy and Ming Dynasty. 5. Trace the historic influence of such discoveries as tea, the manufacture of paper, wood-block printing, the compass, and gunpowder. 6. Describe the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class. 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. 1. Study the Niger River and the relationship of vegetation zones of forest, savannah, and desert to trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves; and the growth of the Ghana and Mali empires. 2. Analyze the importance of family, labor specialization, and regional commerce in the development of states and cities in West Africa. 3. Describe the role of the trans-Saharan caravan trade in the changing religious and cultural characteristics of West Africa and the influence of Islamic beliefs, ethics, and law. 4. Trace the growth of the Arabic language in government, trade, and Islamic scholarship in West Africa. 5. Describe the importance of written and oral traditions in the transmission of African history and culture. 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan. 1. Describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the intellectual, linguistic, religious, and philosophical influence of those countries on Japan. 2. Discuss the reign of Prince Shotoku of Japan and the characteristics of Japanese society and family life during his reign. 3. Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting influence of the warrior code in the twentieth century. 4. Trace the development of distinctive forms of Japanese Buddhism. 5. Study the ninth and tenth centuries' golden age of literature, art, and drama and its lasting effects on culture today, including Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji. 6. Analyze the rise of a military society in the late twelfth century and the role of the samurai in that society. 7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe. 1. Study the geography of the Europe and the Eurasian land mass, including its location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate and their relationship to ways of life in Medieval Europe. 2. Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire. 3. Understand the development of feudalism, its role in the medieval European economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided the foundation of political order. 4. Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor Henry IV). 5. Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament, development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England). 6. Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world. 7. Map the spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia to China, the Middle East, and Europe and describe its impact on global population. 8. Understand the importance of the Catholic church as a political, intellectual, and aesthetic institution (e.g., founding of universities, political and spiritual roles of the clergy, creation of monastic and mendicant religious orders, preservation of the Latin language and religious texts, St. Thomas Aquinas's synthesis of classical philosophy with Christian theology, and the concept of "natural law"). 9. Know the history of the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that culminated in the Reconquista and the rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms. 7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations. 1. Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies. 2. Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, war-fare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery. 3. Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Incan empires were defeated by the Spanish. 4. Describe the artistic and oral traditions and architecture in the three civilizations. 5. Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics, including the development of the calendar and the Meso-American knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations' agricultural systems. 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance. 1. Describe the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts fostered a new interest in humanism (i.e., a balance between intellect and religious faith). 2. Explain the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of independent trading cities (e.g., Venice), with emphasis on the cities' importance in the spread of Renaissance ideas. 3. Understand the effects of the reopening of the ancient "Silk Road" between Europe and China, including Marco Polo's travels and the location of his routes. 4. Describe the growth and effects of new ways of disseminating information (e.g., the ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into the vernacular, printing). 5. Detail advances made in literature, the arts, science, mathematics, cartography, engineering, and the understanding of human anatomy and astronomy (e.g., by Dante Alighieri, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo di Buonarroti Simoni, Johann Gutenberg, William Shakespeare). 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 1. List the causes for the internal turmoil in and weakening of the Catholic church (e.g., tax policies, selling of indulgences). 2. Describe the theological, political, and economic ideas of the major figures during the Reformation (e.g., Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, William Tyndale). 3. Explain Protestants' new practices of church self-government and the influence of those practices on the development of democratic practices and ideas of federalism. 4. Identify and locate the European regions that remained Catholic and those that became Protestant and explain how the division affected the distribution of religions in the New World. 5. Analyze how the Counter-Reformation revitalized the Catholic church and the forces that fostered the movement (e.g., St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits, the Council of Trent). 6. Understand the institution and impact of missionaries on Christianity and the diffusion of Christianity from Europe to other parts of the world in the medieval and early modern periods; locate missions on a world map. 7. Describe the Golden Age of cooperation between Jews and Muslims in medieval Spain that promoted creativity in art, literature, and science, including how that cooperation was terminated by the religious persecution of individuals and groups (e.g., the Spanish Inquisition and the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain in 1492). 7.10 Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions. 1. Discuss the roots of the Scientific Revolution (e.g., Greek rationalism; Jewish, Christian, and Muslim science; Renaissance humanism; new knowledge from global exploration). 2. Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (e.g., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer). 3. Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs. 7.11 Students analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason). 1. Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview. 2. Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent. 3. Examine the origins of modern capitalism; the influence of mercantilism and cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in seventeenth-century Europe; the changing international trading and marketing patterns, including their locations on a world map; and the influence of explorers and map makers. 4. Explain how the main ideas of the Enlightenment can be traced back to such movements as the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution and to the Greeks, Romans, and Christianity. 5. Describe how democratic thought and institutions were influenced by Enlightenment thinkers (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, American founders). Discuss how the principles in the Magna Carta were embodied in such documents as the English Bill of Rights and the American Declaration of Independence.